In 1790 the United States began a federal copyright law to protect authors and publishers published documents (Siwek, 2014). Since this enactment, the Library of Congress has overseen the Copyright Office, as one of their many responsibilities. The Library of Congress is not near the Copyright Office and has struggled to keep copyright obligations as a priority. In addition, it is argued that this copyright structure can be considered unconstitutional. Some of the powers are not aligned with all three branches of the government.
It is reported that 92% of teens use online resources daily, and 24% of these admit that they use to access online resources constantly (Lenhart, 2015). It is evident that students more than ever are using technology and dependent on it for schoolwork, social activities, and communication. The inability to unplug from technology has been linked to increased stress, anxiety, and depression (Bora, 2016). Students are unable to develop coping skills because they are unable to break away from technology. Rarely students are just completely unplugged, if they have any extra time, they are on their phones, texting, playing games, interacting on social media, or taking videos.
Digital citizenship and citizenship sometimes are interpreted as being defined separately. As technology use increased, there was an apparent need to define how people should appropriately act when using technology along with a presence online. However, it is now believed that citizenship and digital citizenship should not be separated because citizenship should be the same, regardless of the use of technology (Ribble, 2015). Citizenship is about showing character through positive behaviors and actions. We should be focusing on citizenship as a whole, not separate this concept from digital citizenship. It is important for people to understand that how we should appropriately behave in person should be identical to online, they are one in the same.
The pacing of the Civil Engineering Unit will depend on the students. The class as a whole will be on the same project, but the other sections of STEM could be on a different project based on their abilities. Some classes may take longer to work through a Unit than other classes. The course will be evaluated at the end of the semester to add or edit any projects. When meeting with other teachers during training, it will be necessary to discuss which projects they use with their classes as not to repeat through the grade levels and specific Units.
In the Civil Engineering Unit of STEM, students will need to provide some supplies for the Marble Mineshaft. The Mineshaft is built out of cardboard, primarily toilet paper rolls, and paper towel rolls and the students will need to bring these supplies to construct the project. The software to design, and present the information will be provided along with the computers needed to view videos and prepare assignments. The resources will all be sourced in the LMS so that students have access to the information at school and home. The learners will be provided desktop computers to watch videos, work on discussion, assignments, and submit the projects through the LMS Schoology. At the beginning of the Unit when students are learning about forces involved with structures, students will primarily be answering the questions individually, but later in the Unit students will be working with one or more peers to design, create, and build the structures. These majority of the assignments and discussions will be submitted to the LMS. The hands-on bridge and marble mineshaft projects will need to be observed and given feedback in class without an online submission.
The course I am creating will be blended classroom, I believe a STEM class would be a challenge to be 100% online because the students work together to build and create objects. I have designed the Civil Engineering course to build on basic physics concepts to allow students a deeper understanding before they apply these ideas. The students will begin learning about different forces and how they work together. Then, they will apply the knowledge of these forces to how they relate to bridges and other structures. Last the students will use this knowledge to design, build, and create structures. All the separate units contain an assessment to measure the students learning. These assessments will consist of quizzes, discussions, assignments, and projects. At the beginning of the year, I showed the students how to effectively save documents remotely, how to navigate through an LMS, and how to submit assignments. I also have fielded questions as students are learning how to use the LMS.
I am comfortable teaching a blended course with little to no collaboration. Currently, one of the classes I teach I have no support at our school because I am the only teacher teaching this course. To create an effective course it will be important to closely monitor the students’ progress through observations, tests, discussions, and projects evaluations. Generally, with students having the opportunity to work in small groups, they usually are able to complete the task in STEM class. However, with group-based projects, it can be challenging to determine how much each student learned. Some students are able to drive the group with their previous knowledge or experience, while others are less involved in the project. Throughout the course I am designing, I am hopeful that after the students have completed the Civil Engineering module, students will be able to explain in depth the career of Civil Engineering, successfully problem solve, design, build and evaluate both a bridge and marble mineshaft. The needed resources to provide these outcomes are videos, instructions, online resources, discussions, and quizzes.
The courses I am currently developing are STEM (science, technology, engineering, & math) and BIM (business information management). These courses are both taught at the Middle School level and have very different goals and objectives. I have been focusing on creating videos for my BIM class, allowing students to work at their own pace or learn information remotely. In these classes, the primary learning theory is Constructivism, because many of the assignments are creating real-world projects (Dabbagh, 2018). The STEM class is hands-on where students are designing, building, creating, and programming. The BIM class centers on learning about business and applying Microsoft Programs in real situations. However, Behaviorism is needed at times before the students create a project, there is some information that the students learn through direct teaching or researching information. Also, the grades that are required, provide a reward or consequence for the students learning.
This research will be conducted using many methods of qualitative and quantitative data with informal and formal testing, surveys, interviews, and observations. Qualitative and quantitative are the most appropriate combination to effectively provide information regarding student achievement and student engagement. The qualitative data will provide opportunities for students and teachers to express their opinions, while quantitative data will provide a statistical analysis using various collection methods (Mertler, 2016). The combination of using both methods may provide a better understanding of the problem, than using one method alone. The mix of these types of research will provide strength in the research and confidence of formed conclusions.
Boccella, K. (2015). In Spring City, Pa., Hybrid Learning Sends Test Scores Soaring. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved from http://www.govtech.com/education/In-Spring-City-Pa-Hybrid-Learning-Sends-Test-Scores-Soaring.html
This school based in Spring City, PA, have seen positive results with a hybrid learning environment. With this style of learning, students rotate between stations, allowing teachers to work with small groups and individual students. The test scores have improved by 24 percent in math, 20 points in reading, and 27 points in science.